What is Educational Psychology?

Educational Psychology is one branch of psychology that specifically examines the behavior of individuals in the context of educational activities. Educational Psychology studies, examines, and discusses all human behavior involved in the educational process. The goal to be achieved by educational psychology is to find facts, generalizations, and psychological theories related to the world of education through certain scientific methods in order to achieve the effectiveness of the process.

Educational psychology is a branch of psychology that specializes in how to understand teaching and learning in an educational environment.

Educational psychology intends to apply psychology to processes that bring about changing behavior, in other words to teach. While the meaning of educational psychology is the study of learning, growth, and individual maturity and the application of scientific principles to human reactions. Education aims to influence the teaching and learning process.

Education is an activity that involves many people, ie students, teachers, community, and also parents. But in the context of educational psychology, the problem is more focused on students. Because essentially education is a service for students.

Understanding of Educational Psychology According to Experts

There are many experts who define Educational Psychology as a branch of psychology in general.

Muhibin Shah defines Educational Psychology as a branch of psychology whose scope of discussion deals with child psychology in the context of education. This definition focuses on the child as an object as well as the subject of education that has a soul and innate potentials in which education is in charge of developing and actualizing these things.

Shah's definition above also toughen idea that educational psychology is one of the branches of psychology which research focuses on issues related to the growth and development of the child physically and mentally, in which the child growth and mental development is related to process and learning outcomes.

Another definition is proposed by Elliot et al. Who defines educational psychology as the implementation of psychological theories in order to learn the process and learning outcomes, the development of learners, motivation, way of teaching, and various problems in education.

Sumadi Suryabrata said that educational psychology is a knowledge about students in the context of education is reviewed with the science of psychology. Educational psychology is a psychological knowledge of students in educational situations. (Sumadi Surabrata, 1984)

While Whiterington states that educational psychology is a systematic study of the processes and factors related to education. Educational psychology is a mathematical study of psychological processes and factors related to human education (Whiterington, 1978)

Psychology can be interpreted as a study of behavior and symptoms of the symptoms of the human soul (Abu, 2003).

In the Big Indonesian Dictionary, education is the process of changing the attitudes and behavior of a person or group in an effort to mature people in a learning or training (KBBI).

Understanding of educational psychology according to experts, can be concluded that educational psychology is a psychological discipline that influences the teaching and learning process in the world of education.

Based on the denomination of educational psychology above, it can be concluded that psychology is a sub-discussion of general psychology. If psychology is like a tree, then the psychology of education is like one branch of the tree. Why one? Because in addition to educational psychology, there are many other branches of psychology, such as developmental psychology, organizational industry psychology, social psychology, personality psychology, Islamic psychology, and others.

The Scope of the Study of Educational Psychology at least includes the following things:
  1. The extent to which innate and environmental factors affect the learning process
  2. The properties of the learning process
  3. The relationship between the level of maturity with learning readiness.
  4. At each stage of development, children have different characteristics.
  5. The significance of education to individual differences in the speed and limitations of learning
  6. Changes in the soul that occurs during the learning process
  7. The relationship between teaching procedures and learning outcomes.
  8. Already understood in the world of education.
The Important of educational psychology for teacher

Teachers understanding about educational psychology is very important, because teachers are the spearhead in the implementation of the educational process. In this case, the teacher acts as an observer who studies the psychological phenomena in the protégé shown through their outward deeds during each period of development (prenatal, early, adolescent, etc.), so that the teacher can draw conclusions or formulate a theory that later can be applied learning process mengjar for learning objectives can be achieved maximally.

In perspective of educational psychology, children are assumed as educational subjects with physical and psychological dimensions (soul, spirit). As stated in the law of tempo and rhythm of development, that each child experiences a different rate of development. There is a balance between physical and psychological development, there is a physical development faster than psychological development, there is also a psychological development more quickly than the physical maturity. It is these things that teachers need to know about their students. Each child has a unique character, so in the learning process there needs to be a variety of methods and approach appropriate to the character.

Education cannot be separated from psychology. The contribution psychology to education is enormous. Educational activities, especially in formal education, such as curriculum development, Teaching and Learning Processes, evaluation systems, and Guidance and Counseling services are some of the main activities in education which cannot be separated from psychology.

Education as an activity that involves many people, including students, educators, administrators, the community and parents of students. Therefore, so that the goals of education can be achieved effectively and efficiently, then everyone involved in such education should be able to understand about individual behavior and at the same time be able to show their behavior effectively.

Teachers as mentors, educators and trainers for their students, of course, are required to understand about various aspects of their behavior and the behavior of people related to their duties, especially the behavior of students with all aspects, so that they can carry out their duties and roles effectively, which in turn can make a real contribution to the achievement of educational goals in schools.

This is where the importance of Educational Psychology for teachers. The teacher's mastery of educational psychology is one of the competencies that must be mastered by the teacher as a part of pedagogical competence. Muhibbin Shah (2003) said that "among the knowledge that teachers need and master candidates need is knowledge of applied psychology that is closely related to the learning process of students"

By understanding the educational psychology, a teacher through psychological considerations is expected to be able:

1. Formulate learning objectives appropriately.

By understanding the psychology of education, it is expected that the teacher will be more precise in determining the desired form of behavior change as a learning goal. For example, by trying to apply Bloom's thinking about the taxonomy of individual behavior and relating it to theories of individual development.

2. Choosing the appropriate learning strategy or method.

By understanding the psychology of education, it is expected that the teacher can determine the appropriate or appropriate learning strategy or method, and be able to associate it with the characteristics and uniqueness of the individual, the type of learning and learning style and the level of development being experienced by the students.

3. Provide guidance or even provide counseling.

The duties and roles of the teacher, in addition to carrying out learning, are also expected to be able to guide the students. By understanding the psychology of education, of course the teacher is expected to be able to provide psychological assistance appropriately and correctly, through the process of interpersonal relationships that are full of warmth and familiarity.

4. Facilitating and motivating student learning.

Facilitating means trying to develop all the potential that students have, such as talent, intelligence and interest. While motivating can be interpreted as trying to encourage students to do certain actions, especially learning. Without an understanding of the psychology of adequate education, it seems that the teacher will experience difficulties in realizing himself as a facilitator and motivator for learning his students.

5. Creating a conducive learning climate.

The effectiveness of learning requires a conducive learning climate. Teachers with an adequate understanding of the psychology of education make it possible to create a conducive socio-emotional climate in the classroom, so that students can learn comfortably and pleasantly.

6, Interact appropriately with their students.

The teacher's understanding of educational psychology allows for the realization of interactions with students wiser, full of empathy and a pleasant figure in front of their students.

7. Assessing fair learning outcomes.

The teacher's understanding of educational psychology can help the teacher in developing a more equitable assessment of student learning, both in technical assessment, fulfillment of the principles of assessment and determining the results of the assessment.

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