Kohlberg's Stages of Individual Moral Development

Moral is a state of thought, feeling, speech, and human behavior associated with good and bad values. Moral is a person's behavior/speech in interacting with humans. If what someone does is in accordance with the values ​​prevailing in the community and acceptable and fun environment of the community, then the person is judged to have good morale. When people begin to realize that they are part of the social environment in which they are, at the same time individuals begin to realize that in their social environment there are rules, norms/values ​​as a basis or a guide to behave. The decision to do something based on the prevailing norms and their values ​​is called morality. In this case, Kohlberg put forward the stages of individual moral development.

Pre Conventional (0–9)

This level are classified into two stages, orientation to compliance and punishment and relativistic hedonism.

In the stage of orientation to compliance and punishment, children assume good or bad based on the consequences it produces. The child only knows that rules are determined by the existence of inviolable power. He was just obedient because he just wanted to not be punished.

In the stage of relativistic hedonism, children are no longer absolutely dependent on rules that exist outside themselves, or determined by others, but they are aware that every event has several aspects. So there is relativism, meaning depending on one's needs and capabilities (hedonistic). For example: stealing a chicken by starvation, because the act of stealing it to meet its needs (hungry) then stealing is considered a moral act, although the act of stealing is known as wrongdoing.

Conventional (9–15)

This level classified in two stages, that is orientation of a good child and maintain of social norms and authority.

At this stage the child begins to enter a dozen years, where the child shows the orientation of actions that can be judged good or not good by others.

Society is a learning resource that determines whether a person's actions are good or not. Being a 'sweet child' is still very important in this stage.

At mantain social norms and authority. Person shows good behaviors not only to be accepted by his or her community, but rather to maintain social rules or norms. So good behaviors are an obligation to follow to implement the existing rules, so as not to arise chaos.

Post Conventional (>15 )

This level also claasified in two stages, that is orientation to the agreement between himself and the social environment and universal ethical principles.

At this stage there is a mutual relationship between himself and the social environment with the community. One must show obligations, must be in accordance with the demands of social norms because otherwise, the social environment or society will provide protection to it. The origin of teenagers is also evident in this. Teenagers still want to be strictly regulated by the higher general laws. Though at this stage the conscience has begun to speak, but his judgments have not yet arisen from a fully-identified heart, which often appears in a rigid attitude.

There is the ethical norm in addition to the personal and subjective norms. In relationships and agreements between a person and his society there are subjective elements that assess whether an action is good or not. This subjectivism means there is a difference in judgment between a person and another person. In this case, the ethical element will determine what is allowed and either done or vice versa. Adolescents hold moral moralization of teenagers performing behavior - moral behavior driven by their own inner responsibilities. The level of post-conventional moral development must be achieved during adolescence.

Teacher required to understand and master the stage of students' moral development. understanding and mastery of teachers about the Stages of Moral Development of learners more concerned with the facilitation of learners in developing their affective potential, especially in developing the ability of learners in determining the good or bad something.

The efforts to facilitate the potential and moral development of learners also need to consider and adjust with the Moral Development stages. For example: in accordance with the stage of moral development of students who have entered Post Conventional stage, a high school teacher should be able to facilitate learners to achieve moral maturity that has an orientation to the agreement between himself and the social environment and universal ethical principles.

The efforts to facilitate moral development of learners is mostly done through nurturant effect or indirect learning (indirect learning), as many put forward in the concept of character education.

Moral development has a very close relationship with cognitive development. Therefore, the teacher's efforts in facilitating cognitive development and moral development of learners basically make a unified whole and run simultaneously. Efforts to teach the true cognitive in it must also be available to membelajarkan moral.

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