Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)

Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) are thinking activities that involve the cognitive level of the high hierarchy of Bloom's Taxonomy. HOTS was originally known from the concept of Benjamin S. Bloom in a book entitled Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals (1956) which categorizes various levels of thought called Bloom Taxonomy, from the lowest to the highest. This concept is a learning goal that is divided into three domains, namely cognitive (mental skills around knowledge), affective (emotional side of attitudes and feelings), and psychomotor (physical abilities such as skills).

Alice Thomas and Glenda Thorne define the term HOTS in an article entitled How to Increase Higher Order Thinking (2009) as a way of thinking at a higher level than memorizing, or retelling something that is told by others.

The concept of taxonomy for determining learning goals can be referred to as the ultimate goal of a learning process. So, after a certain learning process, students are expected to be able to adopt new skills, knowledge, and attitudes.

The hierarchical taxonomy of Bloom consists of six levels: knowledge (Recall or locate information), understanding (Understand learned facts), application (Apply what has been learned to new situations), analysis ("Take apart" information to examine different parts), synthesis (Create or invent something; bring together more than one idea) and evaluation (Consider evidence to support conclusions).

Anderson, L., and Krathwohl, D. in his book Assessing: A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy published by Publishing Co., New York, US revised this level of taxonomy into remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing , evaluating, creating. The revised results from Anderson and Krathwohl are very easily accepted by many scientists and practitioners so that their existence is always a reference of the development of learning theory.

According to the Director General of Learning and Student Affairs at the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education, Prof. Intan Ahmad, Ph.D., as reported by Ruanguru.com, HOTS is one way to test whether a student can analyze, compare, count, and so on. "So unusual abilities are needed. Not just remembering or memorizing."

This HOTS model exam question encourages students to do high-level reasoning so that they are not fixated on only one pattern of answers generated from the memorization process, without knowing the concept of knowledge. HOTS is one of the demands of skills in 21st century learning, namely critical, creative, collaborative and communicative thinking.

HOTS exam question makes it possible to make the same type of question, but with different questions. This aims to capture prospective students who are qualified and in accordance with the development of information technology in the digital era. By familiarizing yourself with challenging questions, your potential can also be encouraged to grow.

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